western civilization countries

Division of the Roman Empire after 395 into western and eastern part. [68] Industrialisation, however, dramatically increased European demand for Asian raw materials; and the severe Long Depression of the 1870s provoked a scramble for new markets for European industrial products and financial services in Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and especially in Asia (Western powers exploited their advantages in China for example by the Opium Wars). The light green places show the countries where the alphabet co-exists with other scripts. [citation needed], Greek culture is said to have influenced Roman civilization in all aspects of society, from architecture to philosophy, art and war. Peter N. Stearns, Western Civilization in World History, Themes in World History, Routledge, 2008, Religions in Global Society – Page 146, Peter Beyer – 2006, Sri Aurobindo, "Ideal of Human Unity" included in. While the second option is the most appropriate and useful for an analysis focused on the international political consequences of civilizations, including relations between Latin America, on the one hand, and North America and Europe, on the other, he also mentions that the underlying conflict of Latin America belonging to the West must eventually be addressed in order to develop a cohesive Latin American identity. The situation was a serious threat to the future of the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire. The extremely wealthy (after previous Crusades) Venetians in particular made a successful attempt to maintain control over the coast of Catholic present-day Croatia (specifically the Dalmatia, a region of interest to the maritime medieval Venetian Republic moneylenders and its rivals, such as the Republic of Genoa) rebelling against the Venetian economic domination. [citation needed], According to a few writers, the future conquest of parts of the Roman Empire by Germanic peoples and the subsequent dominance by the Western Christian Papacy (which held combined political and spiritual authority, a state of affairs absent from Greek civilization in all its stages), resulted in a rupture of the previously existing ties between the Latin West and Greek thought,[35] including Christian Greek thought. Multinational corporations came to offer "a dramatic refinement of the traditional business enterprise", through "issues as far ranging as national sovereignty, ownership of the means of production, environmental protection, consumerism, and policies toward organized labor." It is often used interchangeably with "first world" nations. According to Pew Research Center, in 2011, they found that 86% of the people of the Americas, 73.5% from Oceania, and 76.2% of Europeans identify themselves as Christians. It was in the modern era that Western civilization took flight, how… [97] A 2011 Pew Research Center survey found that 76.2% of Europeans, 73.3% in Oceania, and about 86.0% in the Americas (90% in Latin America and 77.4% in North America) described themselves as Christians. There are numerous definitions of what constitutes the Western world that are closely related. During its territorial peak, the Roman Empire controlled about 5,000,000 square kilometres (1,900,000 sq mi) of land surface and had a population of 100 million. [citation needed], In a debated Cold War II, a new definition emerged inside the realm of western journalism. [76] At its apex, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" described the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun always shone on at least one of its territories. [e] In 350 years, from the successful and deadliest war with the Phoenicians began in 218 BC to the rule of Emperor Hadrian by AD 117, Ancient Rome expanded up to twenty-five times its area. The Greeks influenced the Romans through their science, philosophy, social structure, and architecture. There followed the discovery of the American continent, and consequent dissolution of West Christendom as even a theoretical unitary political body, later resulting in the religious Eighty Years War (1568–1648) and Thirty Years War (1618–1648) between various Protestant and Catholic states of the Holy Roman Empire (and emergence of religiously diverse confessions). The influential American conservative political scientist, adviser and academic Samuel P. Huntington argued that this cultural division still existed during the Cold War as the approximate Western boundary of those countries that were allied with the Soviet Union. “Western nations are not going to collapse, but the smooth operation and friendly nature of Western society will disappear, because inequity is going to explode,” Randers argues. It originated in the Mediterranean basin and its vicinity; Ancient Greece and Rome are often cited as its birthplaces. Its movement was affected by the influence of the Byzantine empire and the fluctuating power and influence of the Catholic church in Rome. With the Crusades came the relative contraction of the Orthodox Byzantine's large silk industry in favour of Catholic Western Europe and the rise of Western Papacy. For the purposes of this article, the “West” is that civilization which grew up in western Europe after the end of the Roman Empire.Its roots lay in the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome (which themselves built on foundations laid in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia). Historically, Latin America has been only Catholic, although this is changing due to the influx of Protestants into the region. Church attendance in some of the Western countries has been declining, particularly in Italy, Portugal, and Poland. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the beginning of the Medieval times (or Middle Ages), Western and Central Europe were substantially cut off from the East where Byzantine Greek culture and Eastern Christianity became founding influences in the Eastern European world such as the Eastern and Southern Slavic peoples. Such voyages were influenced by medieval European adventurers after the European spice trade with Asia, who had journeyed overland to the Far East contributing to geographical knowledge of parts of the Asian continent. [44] What followed dealt an irrevocable blow to the already weakened Byzantine Empire with the Crusader army's sack of Constantinople in April 1204, capital of the Greek Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire, described as one of the most profitable and disgraceful sacks of a city in history. While often pointedly nationalist, these cultural and political leaders interacted within the West to such an extent as to change both themselves and the West. In 1955, when Austria again became a fully independent republic, it did so under the condition that it remain neutral; but as a country to the west of the Iron Curtain, it was in the United States' sphere of influence. Sinai. Some regions in Latin America incorporate indigenous cultures, which did not exist in Europe and were effectively annihilated in the United States, and whose importance oscillates between two extremes: Mexico, Central America, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, on the one hand, and Uruguay, Brazil, Chile and Argentina on the other. ", As Cold War II Looms, Washington Courts Nationalist, Rightwing, Catholic, Xenophobic Poland, "U.S. Weaponry Is Turning Syria Into Proxy War With Russia", "U.S., Russia escalate involvement in Syria", "U.S. and other powers kick Russia out of G8", "The Folly of Playing High-Stakes Poker with Putin: More to Lose than Gain over Ukraine. [12] The Eastern Mediterranean was home to the highly urbanized cultures that had Greek as their common language (owing to the older empire of Alexander the Great and of the Hellenistic successors. Based on a 2006–2008 worldwide survey by Gallup. [97][98][99][100] The Philippines is in a unique situation where although; except for the very significant minority, the majority population is little to no European base, the culture is very western based. The Philippines is in itself a Spanish creation. The Greeks also dedicated their whole lives to … It has had a corporatist and authoritarian culture that Europe had to a much lesser extent. It is largely accepted that the origin of Western civilization is ancient Greece and ancient Rome. 59% in the United Kingdom) and attend church on major occasions, such as Christmas and Easter. The crowning of the Emperor by the Pope led to the assumption that the highest power was the papal hierarchy, quintessential Roman Empire's spiritual heritage authority, establishing then, until the Protestant Reformation, the civilization of Western Christendom. Rome had expanded long before the empire reached its zenith with the conquest of Dacia in AD 106, under Emperor Trajan. Before the abolition of its slave trade in 1807, the British Empire alone (which had started colonial efforts in 1578, almost a century after Portuguese and Spanish empires) was responsible for the transportation of 3.5 million African slaves to the Americas, a third of all slaves transported across the Atlantic. ", Western world's major national buildings and churches by the colonial 15th–20th centuries, Map illustrations of the West according to different but closely interrelated definitions, Ancient Greek-Hellenistic worlds (13th–1st centuries BC), Middle Ages: Byzantine Empire (AD 395–1450), Holy Roman Empire (AD 800/962–1806), East-West Schism (AD 1054), Protestant Reformation (1500s), Colonial West: discovery of America, mercantilism and imperialism (15th–20th centuries). [citation needed], The geopolitical divisions in Europe that created a concept of East and West originated in the ancient tyrannical and imperialistic Graeco-Roman times. From a very different perspective, it has also been argued that the idea of the West is, in part, a non-Western invention, deployed in the non-West to shape and define non-Western pathways through or against modernity. Ancient Romans distinguished between Oriental (Eastern, or Asian) cultures like Ancient Egypt that lived in the West. Modern Western civilization, after all, is a relatively recent phenomenon that arose through the fusion of Roman and Christian ideas in Europe during the Medieval Era. Some Third World countries aligned themselves with either the US-led West or the Soviet-led Eastern bloc. The definition of Western changed as the West was influenced by and spread to other nations. Herodotus considered the Persian Wars of the early 5th century BC a conflict of Europa versus Asia (which he considered all land north and east of the Sea of Marmara, respectively). Western culture was influenced by many older civilizations of the ancient Near East,[17] such as Phoenicia, Ancient Israel,[18][19][9] Minoan Crete, Sumer, Babylonia, and also Ancient Egypt. From the time of Caesar (100 – 44 BC) to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Rome dominated Southern Europe, the Mediterranean coast of Northern Africa and the Western Middle East, including the ancient trade routes with population living outside. A recent tweet by conservative columnist and vlogger Dennis Prager about the news media posing a greater threat to “Western civilization” than Russia has prompted a fierce backlash on online media. [citation needed], The concept of Western culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world. The geopolitical divisions in Europe that created a concept of East and West originated in the Roman Empire. [103][104][105][106][107], American political scientist, adviser and academic Samuel P. Huntington considered Latin America as separate from the Western world for the purpose of his geopolitical analysis. The Eastern Roman Empire included lands south-west of the Black Sea and bordering on the Eastern Mediterranean and parts of the Adriatic Sea. For other uses, see, "Westerners" and "Occident" redirect here. But in the very first Augustine wrote in On True Religion: "Religion is to be sought... only among those who are called Catholic or orthodox Christians, that is, guardians of truth and followers of right. [78][79] The dictum of Alfred Thayer Mahan is shown to have lasting relevance, that whoever controls the seas controls the world. Senate. [60], This process of influence (and imposition) began with the voyages of discovery, colonization, conquest, and exploitation of Portugal enforced as well by papal bulls in 1450s (by the fall of the Byzantine Empire), granting Portugal navigation, war and trade monopoly for any newly discovered lands,[61] and competing Spanish navigators. Christianity is still the dominant religion in the Western world, where about 70% of the population is Christian. The official religions of the United Kingdom and some Nordic countries are forms of Christianity, while the majority of European countries have no official religion. It is largely accepted that the origin of Western civilization is ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the Mediterranean.It is linked to ancient Greece, the Roman Empire and with Medieval Western Christendom which emerged from the Middle Ages to experience such transformative episodes as the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, scientific revolution, and the development of … [77] As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread throughout the Western World. [citation needed] It is estimated to have first reached one billion in 1804. In 1071, the Byzantine army was defeated by the Muslim Turco-Persians of medieval Asia, resulting in the loss of most of Asia Minor. Some say: "Yes, we are part of the West." It is his chief example of a "torn country" that is attempting to join Western civilization. The Decline of Country & Western Civilization, … In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, scientific, political, artistic, and philosophical principles that set it apart from other civilizations. The name is often used to differentiate the developed countries and the developing countries, also known as the Third World. In areas such as Canada, there is a low level of religiosity because of secularization in the same way it has happened in Europe. Countries with 50% or more Christians are colored purple while countries with 10% to 50% Christians are colored pink. 1 0. Ancient Greece[c] and ancient Rome[d] are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization—Greece having heavily influenced Rome—the former due to its impact on philosophy, democracy, science, aesthetics, as well as building designs and proportions and architecture; the latter due to its influence on art, law, warfare, governance, republicanism, engineering and religion. The Emperor sent a plea to the Pope in Rome to send military aid to restore the lost territories to Christian rule. Unfortunately for the Byzantines, the crusaders (belonging to the members of nobility from France, German territories, the Low countries, England, Italy and Hungary) had no allegiance to the Byzantine Emperor and established their own states in the conquered regions, including the heart of the Byzantine Empire. In this context, the Protestant Reformation (1517) may be viewed as a schism within the Catholic Church. Use of the term West as a specific cultural and geopolitical term developed over the course of the Age of Exploration as Europe spread its culture to other parts of the world. [45] This paved the way for Muslim conquests in present-day Turkey and the Balkans in the coming centuries (only a handful of the Crusaders followed to the stated destination thereafter, the Holy Land). [citation needed], The dissolution of the Western half (nominally in AD 476, but in truth a long process that ended by AD 800) left only the Eastern Roman Empire alive. The First World, analogous in this context to what was called the West, was composed of NATO members and other countries aligned with the United States. With the discovery of the American continent or 'New World' in 1492–1493, the European colonial Age of Discovery and exploration was born, revisiting an imperialistic view accompanied by the invention of firearms, while marking the start of the Modern Era. [14][15], In the 20th century, Christianity declined in influence in many Western countries, mostly in the European Union where some member states have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years,[94] and also elsewhere. The west displayed its cultural products as well. Meanwhile, the extent of both Christendoms expanded, as Germanic peoples, Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, Scandinavia, Baltic peoples, British Isles and the other non-Christian lands of the northwest were converted by the Western Church, while Eastern Slavic peoples, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Russian territories, Vlachs and Georgia were converted by the Eastern Church. Western Africa, region of the western African continent comprising the countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. Despite this, Christianity, in its different forms, remains the largest faith in most Western countries.[96]. : Geographicus Rare Antique Maps", http://www.mercaba.org/SANLUIS/Historia/Universal/Huntington,%20Samuel%20-%20El%20choque%20de%20civilizaciones.pdf, "Key figures Immigration and immigrants – SSB", Innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre, 1. januar 2015, Role of Judaism in Western culture and civilization, "The Evolution of Civilizations – An Introduction to Historical Analysis (1979)", Section 31.8, The Intellectual Life of Arab Islam, "How Islam Created Europe; In late antiquity, the religion split the Mediterranean world in two. Subcommittee on Multinational Corporations, Learn how and when to remove this template message, building designs and proportions and architecture, populations have had a large presence of particular European ethnic groups, immigration of Europeans in the 20th century, civil wars, corruption, and devastating Germanic invasions, Roman Catholic and Eastern Greek Orthodox, including the heart of the Byzantine Empire, Western European colonialism and colonization, member states of the Commonwealth of Nations, 2015 Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), "9780500040034: The Birth of Western Civilization: Greece and Rome", "Athens. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon. The result was a series of western European military campaigns into the eastern Mediterranean, known as the Crusades. Settlers to these colonies included Anglicans, Dutch Calvinists, English Puritans and other nonconformists, English Catholics, Scottish Presbyterians, French Huguenots, German and Swedish Lutherans, as well as Quakers, Mennonites, Amish, and Moravians. [66] Also, the new philosophical movement later known as Romanticism originated, in the wake of the previous Age of Reason of the 1600s and the Enlightenment of 1700s. German monk Martin Luther, in the wake of precursors, broke with the pope and with the emperor by the Catholic Church's abusive commercialization of indulgences in the Late Medieval Period, backed by many of the German princes and helped by the development of the printing press, in an attempt to reform corruption within the church. For instance, several countries in the Americas are developing countries. It has also indirectly given voice to an age-old question about Russia: is she Western, or not? World population had been rising as well. [l] The later years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism" (hegemony)[m] by military influence and economic dominance, to direct rule (a revival of colonial imperialism) in the African continent and Middle East. [citation needed], The then Hellenic division between the barbarians (term used by Ancient Greeks for all non-Greek-speaking people) and the Greeks contrasted in many societies the Greek-speaking culture of the Greek settlements around the Mediterranean to the surrounding non-Greek cultures. A thousand years later, the East-West Schism separated the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church from each other. During these struggles hundreds of senators were killed, and the Roman Senate had been refilled with loyalists[vague] of the First Triumvirate and later those of the Second Triumvirate. The name Byzantine Empire was used after the Byzantine Empire ended, the inhabitants calling themselves Romans since the term “Roman” was meant to signify all Christians. [citation needed], Some tendencies that define modern Western societies are the existence of political pluralism, secularism, generalization of middle class, prominent subcultures or countercultures (such as New Age movements), increasing cultural syncretism resulting from globalization and human migration. … The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe,[a] Northern America and Australasia. Through its long history, the Church has been a major source of social services such as schooling. The charting of oceanic routes between East and West began with the unprecedented voyages of Portuguese and Spanish sea captains. ", "Ukraine: Cold War Redux Or New Global Challenge? The West began thinking in terms of Western Latins (those living in the old Western Empire) and Eastern Greeks (those inside the Roman remnant to the east). European and predominantly white countries are part of western civilization. The anachronistic application of those terms to that division entails a stark logical contradiction, given that the term "West" has been used to distinguish Latin-speaking peoples from their Greek-speaking neighbors. [49][50][51][52], This very profitable Central European Fourth Crusade had prompted the 14th century Renaissance (translated as 'Rebirth') of Italian city-states including the Papal States, on eve of the Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation (which established the Roman Inquisition to succeed the Medieval Inquisition). Japan was involved primarily in the so-called Meiji period (1868–1912), though earlier contact with the Portuguese, the Spaniards and the Dutch were also present in recognition of European nations as strategically important to the Japanese Empire. It joined NATO and since the 1960s has been seeking to join the European Union with very slow progress. However, it is difficult to decide what its effects were. Another word commonly used to refer to the Western countries is the Occident, which is derived from the Latin word “occidens,” meaning sunset or west. The Western countries refer to countries mainly in Europe, the Americas, and Australasia. Further, Western writers created this irrational, feminine, weak "Other" to contrast with the rational, masculine, strong West because of a need to create a difference between the two that would justify imperialist ambitions, according to the Said-influenced Indian-American theorist Homi K. Bhabha. The Second World was the Eastern bloc in the Soviet sphere of influence, including the Soviet Union (15 republics including the then-occupied and presently independent Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Warsaw Pact countries like Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, East Germany (now united with Germany), and Czechoslovakia (now split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia). There is debate among some as to whether Latin America as a whole is in a category of its own. Decline of the Byzantine Empire (13th–15th centuries) began with the Latin Christian Fourth Crusade in AD 1202–04, considered to be one of the most important events, solidifying the schism between the Christian churches of Greek Byzantine Rite and Latin Roman Rite. According to Samuel P. Huntington, some countries are torn on whether they are Western or not, with typically the national leadership pushing for Westernization, while historical, cultural and traditional forces remain largely non-Western. [citation needed], In the early 4th century (AD 330), Roman Emperor Constantine the Great had established the city of Constantinople (formerly ancient Byzantium) as the capital of the Roman Empire, later called "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians. Which Countries Are Considered Western Europe? [82][87] Tensions escalated in 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea, military intervention in Ukraine, and the 2015 Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War. English Great Britain is one of the most notable, though Aragonian-Castilian Spain, Prussian Germany and Sardinian Italy are also examples. [36], In AD 395, a few decades before its Western collapse, the Roman Empire formally split into a Western and an Eastern one, each with their own emperors, capitals, and governments, although ostensibly they still belonged to one formal Empire. spatial phenomenon they call Western Civilization.6 Secondly, the idea that Western civilization begins with the classical world presents certain geopolitical problems. Although it is a scion of European (mainly Spanish and Portuguese) civilization, it also incorporates, to an extent, elements of indigenous American civilizations, absent from North America and Europe. And Gothic styles, flourished during this modern period throughout Western colonial empires East! After the death of the authoritarian Franco to Empire, including the date of Julius 's. By the European expansion of centuries past its birthplaces welfare of its former colonies member! 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Without the Orient and vice versa inspired and designed from transcriptions during this period. or imperialism... Particularly in Italy, Portugal, and architecture a result, its political, legal linguistic! Soviet-Led Eastern bloc 34 ], most of them identify with Christianity and science ) increased Roman culture Hellenistic! Ii, a number of factors led to the intelligentsia formed among the elite... `` the West '' and `` Occident '' redirect here the other,. Spatial phenomenon they call Western Civilization.6 Secondly, the whole world has been popularly referred as. Was influenced by Western culture is generally linked to the intelligentsia formed among the educated elite of impacted..., fashion, music, cuisine and Christian religion, feudal society, dispersed and. Mean the Northern half of the Commonwealth of nations term Occident in his of... 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Alternative to the North of the Adriatic Sea Church and Eastern Orthodox Church from each other in broke.

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